星期四, 3月 09, 2017

耶穌在午正與撒瑪利亞婦人井旁談道

整理多年的資料之際,發現這張雅各井的照片,也是耶穌與一位撒瑪利亞婦人談道的水井(參拙文〈撒瑪利亞婦人的故事〉)。



古時的水井,沒有蓋上頂,所以女仕們出來打水的時間是清早或下午。這位人人都厭棄、道德有問題的婦人,只有「一個」來打水。

談道時間是一天最熱的午正。「在那裏有雅各井;耶穌因走路困乏,就坐在井旁。那時約有午正。」(約翰福音 4.6)

太陽曝曬,耶穌走路困乏,坐在井旁,倦了渴了。午正是一天最炎熱之際,人休息不作工。中東地中海社會的工作規律,午正太陽之下,農夫會休息、城中長老暫停不審事務、獵人停止打獵、牧羊人暫停在野地放牧、士兵暫時休戰。

凱撒奧古斯時代,有一位羅馬拉丁詩人名叫維吉爾(Virgil,公元前 70-50年),他在《農事詩》(Georgica)的第三卷敘述畜牧的工作,說在午正烈日之下,他會使羊群走到谷陰之中,在密林之內放牧,直到日落之時(Virgil, Georgica, 3.330-335)。

可見,午正是休息停工時,「那時門徒進城買食物去了」(約翰福音 4.8, 31, 33)。門徒按著正常時間表行事,沒有可責之處。

但是有一例外,維吉爾在《農事詩》(Georgica)的第一卷敘述農務,說:「施來斯(Ceres; 羅馬生育女神)的黃金莊稼,要在午正烈日下收割;在午正烈日下,在禾場上打」(Virgil, Georgica, 1.297-298) [1]。在收割莊稼的時候,縱使烈日當空,也要趕快工作,還要請更多工人把莊稼收割存倉。因為收割的時候,不是平日正常工作的時期。

所以,耶穌說:「34 我的食物就是遵行差我來者的旨意,做成他的工。35 你們豈不說『到收割的時候還有四個月』嗎?我告訴你們,舉目向田觀看,莊稼已經熟了,可以收割了。36 收割的人得工價,積蓄五榖到永生,叫撒種的和收割的一同快樂」(約翰福音 4.34-36)

神子已道成肉身,成就了救恩,收割的時候已到收割季節不是正常時期,不可按平日的模式行事,要趕快行差派之主的心意。事實上,時間在約翰福音第 4 章和整本約翰福音都十分重要,約翰福音的耶穌在整個故事中,暗示著他榮耀的時刻未完全來到,直到逾越的晚餐,才揭示他離世歸父,捨身上十架的時候(2:4; 4:6, 21-23; 5:25, 28; 7:30; 8:20; 12:23, 27; 13:1; 17:1)。

備註:
[1] 關於午正人們工作生活習慣,見 Keener, Craig S. The Gospel of John: A Commentary. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, 2003, p. 592n74-82. 

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