星期六, 5月 08, 2010

香港基督徒回應發現方舟的聲稱

今天剛收到Facebook的forward,一群香港的信徒和學者,將於5月28日發起論壇(按此),回應發現方舟的聲稱,好消息,可惜身在美國,只好禱告中記念。

上個月影音一班同工來到芝加哥,我已向他們談論起不少的問題,包括:

1. 正確的傳媒方法:應先將所謂的發現,公佈於學術的期刊,如BASOR或BAR等,待學者作進一步的考證和討論。

2. 其他考古發現的吻合所謂主前2,800年的木頭,與其他考古的發現不吻合。見筆者之前的文章。

3. 挪亞時期:不能從創世記1-11章推斷出來(包括家譜的計算),主前2,800年的時期,不能說是吻合挪亞時期。

4. 洪水幅度:是普世,還是地域性?我認為在詮釋創世記洪水的經文,不一定要求全球洪水

5. 洪水考古:根本未有全球洪水的跡象,或洪水造成的破壞層,或洪水造成的沉積土。關於沉積土的發現,的而且確,在1930年代,曾在南米索不達米亞的吾珥Ur發現,當時英國考古學家Sir Leonard Woolley在Ubraid時代末期(主前5,300-3,750年),發現一層8尺厚的flood layer (洪水層)。

下圖為Sir Leonard Woolley在吾珥的Pit F發掘的橫面圖(Hoerth 1998: 190, Figure 9.3):


Woolley立刻將之詮釋為聖經中全球洪水的考古明證。在1929年3月16日的New York Times鬨動一時,過了兩天,有人回應說,這個發現對保守派和自由派信徒都有利,因為對保守派來說,終於證明到洪水,但自由派來說,又證明了創世早於主前4004年!

當時其他考古學家挑戰Woolley的詮釋,指出在南米索不達米亞的其他同時期遺址,並無發現洪水層,怎樣說有一個全球性的洪水?更不能證明有一個大地區的洪水。再者,Woolley的洪水層只佔Ubraid時期遺址的一小部份,換言之,這個洪水災只破壞了城市的一部份而已。

洪水層古也在不同的南米索不達米亞遺址被發現,包括Ur, Uruk, Shuruppak, Nineveh, Lagash, Kish,在Ur和Nineveh的洪水沉積土,屬於主前4,000左右的,其他屬於3,000年時期。(有關資料,見Bailey 1989: 28-37的總結)

6. 聖經詮釋方面。更不用說,創8:4說:「七月十七日,方舟停在亞拉臘山上。」中文聖經的翻譯不夠準確,其實原文是亞拉臘地的山脈(harey ‘rarat, mountains of Ararat)。聖經不是說方舟停在一個叫亞拉臘的山上,只是說在亞拉臘地區之中,可能是山頂,也可能是在山腳。現在位於土耳其的亞拉臘山,只有一兩個世紀的歷史!

對於創世記6-9章經文的詮釋,筆者所知道的,最詳細又最中肯的,就是John Walton為NIV Application Commentary Series所寫的釋經書,他不但嚴謹的忠於原文,也處理其他近東洪水記載(如Enuma Elish和Gilgamesh Epic)與聖經的關係,更認真的連繫石質學、考古學和歷史各方面,在資料的處理之中,沒有選擇性和偏袒。

7. 考古和證明的問題。這也是筆者想強調的,考古最終不能證明聖經。最簡單的例子就是,我只能用考古和歷史的方法,指出耶穌的墳墓是空的,但是,我不能證明神叫耶穌從死裡復活,這是信心的一環。為什麼我們硬是認為聖經考古的目的,就是證明聖經,為聖經平反?

參考資料:
Bailey, Lloyd R. 1989. Noah: the Person and the Story in History and Tradition. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.
Hoerth, Alfred J. 1998. Archaeology and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: BakerBooks.
Walton, John H. 2001. Genesis. NIV Application Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

6 則留言:

匿名 說...

The organization isn't looking for the Truth. They just want to make more noise and make themselves like expertise. More funding and more people to buy their products such books and video.

匿名 說...

You can check out their website. http://www.thedaysofnoah.com/index_info_hmv_dvd.asp 《挪亞方舟驚世啟示》登HMV DVD銷量榜第四位-記錄片式福音電影吸引各界興趣

Just a group of Christians without any geological field research skills, scientific background and biblical archaeology. Even they invite someone who claims himself as scientist, however, he isn't geologist or archaeologist. What they can do is to read more books and quote from others. REALLY NOT PROFESSIONAL!

Mark Sir 說...

Thanks for your comments. I agree every word you said. I also don't understand why many other Christians and even pastors are giving "positive" comments on the claim. It sounds to me that they may be misquoted or just plain ignorant.

匿名 說...

First off I want to say great blog! I had a quick question that I'd like to ask if you don't mind.

I was curious to know how you center yourself and clear your thoughts prior to writing. I have had difficulty clearing my mind
in getting my ideas out there. I do enjoy writing however it just
seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes are generally wasted just trying to figure out how to begin.
Any suggestions or tips? Thank you!

Mark Chan 說...

Thank you for reading my blog, which simply is a notebook for my random archaeological pursuit.

I can totally identify with your struggle with centering and clearing my mind to write, especially in the first 10-15 minutes.

From my very limited experience, as I am not a professional writer, before writing, I would need to set aside a substantial amount of time, making sure that there will be minimal distraction. Most often, I just have to force myself to keep on writing, and resist the temptations to polish next sentence and every word. You are right. The first 10-15 minutes is difficult.

But as you can tell, I still have tons to learn.

Really appreciate your thoughts!

匿名 說...

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A lot of times it's very difficult to get that "perfect balance" between superb usability and visual appeal. I must say you have done a excellent job with this. Also, the blog loads extremely quick for me on Firefox. Excellent Blog!